Urology Encyclopedia

Comprehensive
guides on
hundreds
of conditions.



  • Acrosome
    The packet of enzymes in a normal sperm's head that allows the sperm to dissolve a hole in the outer coating around the egg, which allows the sperm to penetrate and fertilize the egg.
  • Antibodies
    Chemicals made by the body to fight or attack foreign substances entering the body. Normally they prevent infection; however, when they attack the sperm or fetus, they can cause infertility.
  • AnticardiolipinAntibodies(ACA)
    An antibody directed against cardiolipin. These are one of the antiphospholipid groups of antibodies. Approximately 80% of patients who have an antiphospholipid antibody problem will test positive for anticardiolipin antibodies, but the remaining 20% will test positive for one of the other six antiphospholipid antibodies.
  • Antiphospholipid Antibodies (APA)
    The acquired autoantibodies to negatively charged phospholipids found in approximately 15% of patients diagnosed with recurrent pregnancy loss. A positive test indicates that a woman's blood clots too fast, cutting off support to the fetus.
  • Antisperm Antibodies
    Antibodies made by either the man or the woman that can attach to sperm and inhibit movement of sperm or fertilization. Antibodies are frequently positive in men who have had vasectomies and vasectomy reversals, or testicular injuries.
  • Assisted Hatching
    It refers to thinning out the zona pellucida (The protective outer membrane surrounding the egg) prior to transferring the embryo into the uterus.
  • Artificially Stimulated Ejaculation
    Controlled electrical stimulation to induce ejaculation in a man with damage to the nerves that control ejaculation.

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